Archive for January, 2014

January 16, 2014

Eastern Orthodox New Year

by eirenehogan

14th January, 2014, is new year according to the Eastern Orthodox church, or some of them, which has kept the Julian calendar – or a version of it –  instead of taking on the Gregorian calendar, which was introduced in 1582.

 

The Julian calendar had been introduced by Julius Caesar and added the leap year to make up 0.25 of a day each year was out.  But the year was actually out by 0.2425 of a day, ie, slightly LESS than a quarter of a day.  By the 1500s this meant the calendar was out by 10 days, and more importantly, meant Easter, which was meant to be celebrated at the time of the Spring equinox, was out, and so the reforms were brought in.

 

But while Catholic countries took it up quickly (as Gregory was the Pope) Protestant and Orthodox countries were suspicious of it.  It wasn’t taken up in England until 1752.

 

The Orthodox churches didn’t take it up within their church, although the countries did slowly adopt it as their civil calendar.  Russia took it up finally in 1918 (ie, after the revolution) and Greece did not take it up until 1923.  That’d be right, the Greeks never did like the Romans.

 

While most countries in the world have taken it up, some still have not, including – according to Wikipedia – Saudi ArabiaEthiopiaNepalIran and Afghanistan

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January 4, 2014

THE EGYPTIAN CALENDAR

by eirenehogan

I have noticed I have a couple of followers on this blog.  Wow, thanks for that.  I think therefore I should post some more.

I’ve been reading a lot on calendars over the Yule period, and it is very complicated.  I will attempt to post more on it as time goes on.  But anyway, for now is some more info on the Egyptian calendar.

 

Bede wrote a fascinating book on how the year and the months were calculated according the movement of the sun, the moon and the planets.  It is a collection of the knowledge of the ancients that he could get a hold of.  It is called The Reckoning of Time (or the Latin thereof).  In it he examines ancient calendars, the Roman calendar and the Anglo-Saxon calendar.  You can access it from Google Books, and I have linked the above title to that.

 

Below I have transcribed the Egyptian calendar as he recorded it.  The dates of the beginning are according to the Roman calendar, and therefore ours – well, taking into account how often that calendar was out.  The months did not begin exactly on those days but give or take a day or so according to how accurately both the Egyptian and the Roman calendar reflected the actual cycle of the sun at the time.

 

Interesting to note that they had leap years.  I don’t know what era this calendar belongs too.  To say something is ‘Ancient Egyptian’ allows for about 3000 years of time.  As Bede has access to the info I’d assume it comes from Greek/Roman writers who had access to such places as the Alexandrian Library. Now as the Roman calendar dates are given, I am assuming this calendar was in force during Roman times.  Yeah, more research needed here.

 

 

Months

 

Name of month

Date of Roman Calendar when month begins

Thoth 29 August
Phaophi 28 Sept
Hathyr 29 Oct
Choiac 27 Nov
Tybi 27 Dec
Mecheir 26 Jan
Phamenoth 25 Feb
Pharmouhti 27 Mar
Pachons 26 April
Payni 26 May
Epieph 25 June
Mesore 25 July
5 intercalated days / 6 every four years 24 Aug

 

From:

The Reckoning of Time, By Saint Bede (the Venerable).

Trans. Faith Wallis, 1999,

Liverpool University Press,

viewed from GOOGLE Books (viewed 3.1.14)

p. 45.

 

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